How to properly grow peppers in a greenhouse



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Pepper is a heat-loving plant. In most of our country, its cultivation is effective only in film or polycarbonate greenhouses. Indoor agricultural technology has its own characteristics that you need to know before you start growing pepper in a greenhouse.

Features of planting pepper in a greenhouse

Planting pepper in a greenhouse (including a polycarbonate one) has its own characteristics.

Landing dates

They depend on the climatic conditions of the region. Pepper seedlings can be planted in an unheated greenhouse when the temperature in it does not drop below + 10-12 ° C. In the southern regions, this is observed already at the beginning - end of April, and in the middle zone at the end of April - mid-May. If warm beds have been prepared in the greenhouse since autumn, then the planting dates can be shifted back by 3-4 weeks.

Landing patterns

Previously, peppers were planted according to a single scheme - the distance between rows is 50-60 cm, the interval between plants in a row is 15-30 cm. This is the so-called wide-row method. But recently, alternative methods have been developed and applied:

  • Two-line tape. In this case, the tape is made of two rows with a distance between them of 20-40 cm, and the distance between the tapes is 50-60 cm. The interval of planting peppers in a row (depending on the variety) is 15-30 cm.
  • Square-nested. The holes for this method are arranged according to the 60x60 cm scheme, planting two plants in each at once.
  • The chess method consists in planting seedlings according to a 20x20 or 30x30 cm scheme with a shift of rows by half the interval.

All these methods provide comfortable conditions for the growth of peppers and economical use of the greenhouse area. The choice of a particular placement method depends on the preferences of the gardener and the size of the greenhouse.

It is necessary to arrange the peppers in the greenhouse in such a way as to provide them with comfortable conditions for growth and ease of maintenance.

The gardener can plant peppers according to their own schemes. It is important to understand that there is a planting rate of pepper - up to 8 bushes per 1 m2, ee and should be adhered to. Some use the method of thickening the plantings, bringing their density to 14 bushes per 1 m2... This leads to the following consequences:

  • The illumination of plants deteriorates, which leads to an increase in the ripening time of the fruits, but at the same time they grow larger and more beautiful, and the yield per unit area also increases (with appropriate care).
  • Lack of food and carbon dioxide. To eliminate the negative consequences, enhanced regular feeding with liquid organic fertilizers will be required (details on feeding will be below).
  • The risks of fungal diseases increase, therefore, treatments with biofungicides, for example, Fitosporin, should be used (there will also be a separate section on treatments).

Combined planting: with what you can plant peppers next door

Most often grown in greenhouses:

  • tomatoes;
  • cucumbers;
  • peppers;
  • eggplant.

All these crops, except for cucumbers, require approximately the same growing conditions - they need heat, moisture and regular feeding. Therefore, it is quite possible to grow them in the same greenhouse. Cucumbers, in addition, need high air humidity, which is not quite suitable for other crops. But in principle, they can also be planted in a common greenhouse somewhere in the far corner, where the air will be more humid.

In addition to the main crops, it is useful to plant some spicy herbs between the pepper bushes:

  • Basil - Its aroma repels aphids and whitefly, and also protects against powdery mildew and mildew.
  • Marjoram repels harmful insects and attracts bees.
  • Lovage accelerates the growth of the surrounding vegetables and makes them stronger and more resistant to disease.
  • Onions (of any kind), planted between rows, disinfect the soil.

But it is not worth planting bitter peppers in the same greenhouse with sweet peppers - as a result of cross-pollination, sweet peppers will acquire bitterness.

Soil preparation

As with any other crops, the soil for planting peppers in the greenhouse is prepared in the fall. If it stands on good fertile soil, then it will be enough to bring in for digging:

  • organic fertilizers (humus, compost) at the rate of 1-2 buckets per 1 m2;
  • wood ash - 2-3 l / m2;
  • superphosphate - 50-60 g / m2.

If the soil is not loose enough, then peat and (or) coarse-grained river sand are added to it to give it a light permeable structure.

The soil in the greenhouse for planting peppers is prepared in the fall.

If the greenhouse is installed on infertile clay, sandy or stony soils, then imported chernozem will be required. To create a fertile layer:

  1. By the size of the beds, they dig a hole 30-40 cm deep.
  2. Fill it in:
    • black soil - 2 parts;
    • peat - 1 part;
    • humus - 1 part;
    • sand - 1 part.
  3. While mixing the components, wood ash and superphosphate are added to the pit in the above amounts.

Warm beds

Arrangement of warm beds for planting pepper would be a good solution. To do this, just as in the previous case, you need to dig a hole 30-40 cm deep. But it should be filled with different organic matter:

  1. A layer (10-15 cm) of coarse organic matter - boards, branches, wood chips - is laid on the bottom.
  2. The next layer of the same thickness is made from organic matter of the middle fraction - small chopped branches, shavings, chopped stalks of corn and sunflower, etc.
  3. From above, all this is covered with semi-rotted sawdust, needles, hay, fallen leaves, semi-rotten humus, etc. This layer may be 10-20 cm above ground level.
  4. All this is covered with a layer of black soil 5-7 cm thick and watered with warm water. At the same time, it is a good idea to add preparations containing soil bacteria, for example, Baikal, Radiance, etc.

Over-heating, organic matter releases heat, which has a beneficial effect on the development of pepper, and also allows you to plant seedlings at an earlier date.

It is good to use warm beds for planting peppers in the greenhouse.

Garter peppers

Most often, tall varieties of peppers are planted in greenhouses, which need a garter. Therefore, even before planting seedlings, you should take care of this and prepare the appropriate devices. It can be:

  • Individual pegs for each bush.

    Pepper stalks can be tied to individual pegs for stability

  • Tapestries.

    Tall peppers are often grown on trellises

  • Cords hanging from above, to which the stalks of pepper are tied.

    Tying peppers to dangling cords is inexpensive but effective.

Planting seedlings in a greenhouse

This operation does not have any peculiarities - they simply plant ready-made seedlings in wells previously shed with warm water according to the chosen placement scheme. At the same time, we must not forget that pepper reacts poorly to deepening - it is planted at the same height at which it grew before transplantation. In addition to the fertilizers applied during the preparation of the beds, it is advisable to add a handful of humus and wood ash to each hole.

Planting pepper seedlings in a greenhouse is carried out according to the usual rules.

How to grow peppers in a greenhouse (including polycarbonate)

After planting the seedlings, they begin to regularly care for it.

Heat and humidity mode

The optimal and comfortable conditions for pepper are:

  • temperature + 18-26 ° C;
  • air humidity (it can be measured with a hygrometer) - 70-75%.

In cases of critical violations of these parameters, emergency measures will be required:

  • If frosts suddenly set in in the spring and the temperature in the greenhouse dropped below + 10 ° C, then the beds should be covered with spunbond, setting arcs for this.
  • With the onset of extreme heat and the temperature inside the greenhouse is approaching +35 ° C, it is possible that, in addition to airing, additional covering of the greenhouse with a shading net will be required.
  • At high humidity, the greenhouse is ventilated, and at low humidity, containers with water are placed in it for evaporation.

Proper watering

For irrigation, use warm, settled water, a supply of which is desirable to constantly have in the greenhouse. Water the peppers at the root - it is undesirable for the water to fall on the leaves. To do this, you can use a garden watering can, or even more convenient - mount a drip irrigation system. The best time to water is early morning and late evening. During the day, you can water only in cloudy weather. Usually this is done every other day, but, of course, it is worthwhile to act according to the situation. If the weather is very hot and sultry, then the frequency of watering is increased, and in cloudy and rainy weather, it is reduced.

For watering peppers in a greenhouse, the best solution is a drip irrigation system.

After watering, the soil should be loosened to provide air access to the roots. At the same time, one should not forget that they are located quite close to the surface, so loosening should be very careful. If the roots are damaged, the plants begin to ache and may not yield at all. To reduce the amount of loosening, the soil can be mulched with hay, rotted sawdust, humus, peat, etc.

Top dressing

The planted seedlings take root and begin to develop within two weeks. After that, they start feeding. It is best to use organic infusions for this, which are easy to prepare yourself. To do this, you need to install a barrel with a wide neck of suitable size (usually 50-200 liters) in a remote place (due to the presence of unpleasant odors). One of the organic components available to the gardener is placed in it:

  • fresh mullein or dung;
  • bird droppings;
  • freshly cut chopped grass (any, weeds are also suitable, but nettle gives the best effect).

Pour water in a ratio of about 1: 1, cover the barrel and leave to ferment for 5-7 days. After this time, the infusion is filtered, diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 5 (the infusion of bird droppings is diluted 1:10) and the pepper is fertilized at the root, spending one liter of fertilizing for each plant.

A week later, the pepper is fed with mineral potash fertilizers. For this, potassium monophosphate is very suitable, which is preliminarily dissolved in water and the plantings are watered at the rate of 10-20 grams of the drug per 1 m2 beds. And you can also replace this fertilizer with an infusion of wood ash. It is prepared by infusing two liters of sifted ash in a bucket of warm water for 2-3 days. After that, pepper is poured under the root, 1 liter per bush, or treated with pollination on the leaves. Such a procedure will provide not only foliar potassium dressing, but also the prevention of fungi, as well as some pests.

In the future, these dressings are carried out weekly, alternating organic and potash.

Formation of bushes

Some gardeners believe that shaping and pruning peppers is unnecessary and is an unnecessary operation. Based on my own experience, I can say that without removing unnecessary stepsons, without the timely formation of a pepper bush, its fruits grow smaller, their pulp is thinner, and the final yield is almost half that of correctly formed bushes.

The most common formation is in two stems. To get it, you need:

  1. Remove all leaves and shoots from the bottom of the bush before the first fork. After that, 2-3 shoots will begin to grow from the fork. If the bush is quite powerful, then you can leave them all, but it is still better to limit yourself to two - this is more reliable.
  2. These skeletal shoots begin to branch, releasing second-order shoots and buds from the forks. In this phase, all such shoots are removed with the exception of one, which will continue to grow upward.
  3. And also remove all the flowers of the first wave, which will contribute to stronger growth of the bush.
  4. Further, during the subsequent branching, the pinching is carried out according to the same algorithm, but the buds are not cut off (except for those growing inward).

    The most common form of pepper is in two stalks

  5. In order to get a large harvest of large and ripe fruits in September, the further development of the bush is stopped at the beginning of August by removing:
    • all flowers and ovaries that have just formed;
    • leaves around the fruit;
    • tips of shoots (pinching).
  6. As a result of these activities, the plants will focus on the growth and maturation of the remaining fruits. In order to prolong fruiting until October, you can leave a certain number of bushes without such pruning, although it will still have to be done, only a little later.

Video: shaping pepper

Processing

In order to avoid the appearance of various fungi and pests, the soil and plants must be treated in a timely manner.

Tillage

In order to prevent the development of fungal diseases 3-5 days before planting, when the soil warms up to + 10-11 ° C, it is treated with Farmayod. To do this, 10 ml of the drug is dissolved in a bucket of water and the beds are shed, spending 2 l / m each2... With this treatment, both pathogenic microorganisms and beneficial soil bacteria die. Therefore, 3-5 days after treatment, the soil should be watered with Baikal or Shining in order to restore the beneficial microflora.

Alternatively, soil treatment with a 0.4-0.5% potassium permanganate solution can be carried out. To do this, 4-5 grams of the drug is dissolved in 10 liters of water and the soil is shed.

Plant processing

After planting the seedlings, after a few weeks, the plants may undergo fungal diseases. It is known that the risk of their appearance increases in a cool and humid environment; thickening of plantings, insufficient illumination, and stagnation of air also contribute to this. For prevention purposes, it is recommended to carry out regular treatments with biofungicides (this is the name for biological preparations to fight fungi), for example, Fitosporin-M.

Fitosporin-M will prevent pepper from many fungal diseases

I always start treatments with this preparation two weeks after planting pepper seedlings (and other crops) and try to carry them out regularly during the growing season at intervals of 2-3 weeks. Fitosporin-M is safe for humans, animals and bees. The fruits processed with it can be eaten (of course, washed) without a waiting period. The drug does not cause addiction (resistance) in fungi and can be used without limiting the number of treatments. An additional bonus is the presence of humic acids in its composition, which helps to strengthen the immune system and is a foliar feeding.

Video: about growing pepper in a greenhouse

Features of growing pepper in the regions

The cultivation of pepper in different regions has its own characteristics associated with climatic conditions. Basically, the timing of planting seedlings, cultivated varieties, differ, in some cases there are other nuances.

Middle lane, including the Moscow region

The methods and rules of cultivation described above are focused precisely on the conditions of the middle lane. Additionally, we note only the recommended and popular varieties of pepper for greenhouses in this region.

Table: some varieties of pepper for middle lane greenhouses

VarietyRipening period, daysFruit weight, gramProductivity, kg / m2
Claudio1182502,5
HealthEarly ripe50—704—4,5
Tenderness1151101,9
Cow's ear70-75 days170—2003,2
California miracle100—12980—1283—5
CountryMid-early180—2501—2

Ural

In the Urals, it is difficult to grow pepper even in a greenhouse without using warm beds. Seedlings are planted here in mid - late May. At the same time, the plants are additionally covered with spunbond at night, since large temperature drops are common in this region. On hot sunny days, when the temperature reaches + 25 ° C, at night there can be frosts down to -10 ° C.

Table: Recommended varieties of pepper for growing in greenhouses in the Urals

VarietyRipening period, daysFruit weight, gramProductivity, kg / m2
Winnie the Pooh107—111481,6—1,8
Amber11290—1103—7
NikitichEarly ripe1003,6—3,9
AtlantMid-season180—1903,1—3,3
Yellow bull95—108167—18414—20,5

Siberia

In Siberia, warm beds are also used for growing pepper. Summer is short here, but at its height the heat can reach + 35 ° C. In this case, the pollen becomes sterile and the fruits are not set. To shade the plantings, thickened plantings and the covering of plants with spunbond are often used here. The pinching of shoots and the removal of flowers in Siberia is carried out at the end of July, since the peppers do not have time to ripen before the frost... The varieties for this region are the same as for the Urals.

Growing peppers in a greenhouse shows more consistent and productive results than outdoors. To achieve them, you should adhere to the rules of indoor agricultural technology, as well as plant varieties suitable for this.


Planting and caring for rosemary in the open field, greenhouse

Rosemary is a very common plant on the Mediterranean coast. This is a fairly tall evergreen shrub, the leaves of which resemble the needles of conifers. Due to its spicy, aromatic and medicinal properties, the plant is widely in demand in cooking and folk medicine. Growing rosemary in the open field in Russia causes certain difficulties, because the local climate is very different from the usual culture. But this task, with knowledge of certain nuances of agricultural technology, is quite solvable.

  1. Which rosemary varieties are suitable for outdoor cultivation?
  2. Corsican Blue
  3. Blue Winter
  4. Crimean
  5. Tenderness
  6. Dewdrop
  7. White
  8. Ampelny
  9. Turquoise
  10. How to grow rosemary outdoors, greenhouse
  11. Landing dates
  12. Growing conditions for rosemary
  13. Soil for rosemary
  14. How to plant rosemary correctly
  15. How to plant rosemary seedlings
  16. How to care for rosemary in the garden
  17. Fertilizing rosemary
  18. How rosemary winters
  19. Care and preparation of rosemary for winter
  20. Features of growing rosemary in different regions
  21. Growing and wintering rosemary in the open field in the Moscow region
  22. Growing rosemary outdoors in Krasnodar
  23. Growing rosemary in the Leningrad region
  24. Growing rosemary in Siberia
  25. Growing rosemary in the open field in the Urals
  26. Rosemary diseases
  27. White bloom on rosemary
  28. Why do rosemary leaves dry?
  29. Why do rosemary leaf tips turn black?
  30. Rosemary pests
  31. How to preserve rosemary in winter
  32. Conclusion

Landing time calculation by region

Planting rules for all regions are the same, but you need to sow zucchini taking into account the climate in a particular area. They are guided by the temperature regime in their zone, as well as by the method of growing. It is necessary to germinate seeds for planting in greenhouses at a settled temperature of about 13-15 ° C. It should be noted that after 3-4 weeks, when the seedlings will be planted in the beds, the temperature should be at least 22. That is, the regions with warm climatic conditions are the first to grow from seeds, then the regions located in central Russia. In Siberia and the Urals, the landing will be among the last. The temperature indicator per day should not fall below 12-14 ° C.

For seedlings for open ground, the average daily rate is measured, given that the plant immediately gets to the garden. In this case, higher temperatures are expected. By region:

  1. In Siberia, it will be normal practice to plant zucchini in July.
  2. The Ural region tolerates planting well in early summer.
  3. And the southern regions plant seeds in May, and sometimes in April.

Then all the data are checked against the lunar calendar and the nearest favorable date for landing is selected.


Irrigation frequency and rates

Experienced gardeners strongly recommend irrigating the plantings in the morning before sunrise to help absorb moisture into the soil, avoiding evaporation. It is also recommended to use only warm water. It is preferable to collect it from barrels in the garden. During the day, it warms up and reaches the required temperature for such a heat-loving cult.

How to water tomatoes in a polycarbonate greenhouse

If the day was very hot, watering can be done in the evening.

Important! In polycarbonate greenhouses, air humidity must be regulated by regular ventilation. Proper watering assumes a consumption of about 10 liters of water for 20 pepper bushes

And if the greenhouse is of the sand type or is simply poorly fertilized, then the amount of water can be increased to 1 liter per 1 bush

Proper watering requires about 10 liters of water per 20 pepper bushes. And if the greenhouse is of the sandy type or is simply poorly fertilized, then the amount of water can be increased to 1 liter per 1 bush.

The water should be evenly and neatly distributed around the bushes. Avoid the formation of an earthen crust near the plant. If the soil is prone to this, it is worth taking special measures to eliminate this problem, for example, periodically loosen the ground.

To promote the correct development of the root system of peppers, you can follow the principle of one-sided watering, which consists in the fact that one half of the bush is irrigated, and the other is actively loosened. The next time the sides change.


Watering pepper in a greenhouse

If the period of ovary formation or active fruiting has begun, the irrigation frequency should be increased up to 2 times every 7 days.

Greenhouse seedlings of peppers also need a unique irrigation system. After planting it directly in the greenhouse, the bushes need to be plentifully snarled. The procedure is repeated after 5 days. In the future, the planted seedlings are irrigated every 2 days.

Many also complain that peppers do not grow well in August. This is primarily due to the fact that the culture is very thermophilic, and the air temperature in the last month of summer is not as high as these people from a tropical country would like. Watering peppers in August in a greenhouse should be done 1 time in 7 days with warm water.

Important! Do not forget that plants need nutrients. It is necessary to correctly and in a timely manner make special feeding


Gardening tips for growing peppers

When sowing, pepper seeds are buried 1-1.5 cm, no more. The soil should be moistened and disinfected in advance. Before germination, the container is kept under the film. Shelter helps create greenhouse conditions.

Important! For seed germination, a stable temperature and humidity is required. You can speed up the process by placing a container with seedlings near a battery or in another warm place.

In order not to face problems, it is necessary to create suitable conditions for seedlings. Here's what experienced gardeners advise:

  1. Peppers do not thrive well in chilled soil. If you have cold windowsills, place the container of seedlings on a foam stand or special rug.
  2. For normal development, seedlings require 12-15 hours of daylight. Light up the seedlings in the morning and evening so that the plants develop normally.
  3. Pepper grows well when warm. During the day, the temperature should be maintained at + 26-28 ° C, and at night + 20-24 ° C. When the temperature drops below + 18 ° C, the growth of pepper stops.
  4. Hybrid plants need even more warmth. For their development, it is required to maintain a temperature 3 degrees higher than when growing conventional varieties.
  5. Irrigation should be done frequently, but with a moderate amount of water. Before watering, be sure to settle the water and slightly warm it up.
  6. Due to inappropriate conditions, pepper seedlings can get sick. Most often it is affected by fungal diseases - black leg, fusarium, late blight. Plants showing signs of disease should be immediately removed from the general container and disposed of. Pour the remaining seedlings under the root with a strong solution of potassium permanganate.
  7. Sometimes, if all the conditions are met, the seedlings stop growing. Perhaps, in this case, the plants are missing some element. Apply a specialized fertilizer for peppers and tomatoes ("Krepysh", "Baby", "Idea").
  8. After one pair of true leaves appears on the seedlings, they are dived into separate pots. First, you need to water the pepper.
  9. After the dive, the seedlings should not be kept in the bright sun, put them for several days in a place where there is a lot of light, but there is no direct access to sunlight.
  10. 2 weeks before planting in the ground, start hardening the seedlings. This will allow the plants to avoid shock.

By the time of transplanting into the ground, the first buds will appear on the seedlings. Before planting, be sure to measure the soil temperature at the planting depth. The ground should warm up to 15-17 ° C. One day before planting, water the bushes and spray them with the simulator solution.

On a note! Plant the seedlings in the ground at the same depth at which they grew before. After planting, it is better to mulch the root zone. Mulch will reduce the rate of evaporation of moisture and warm the root system of the peppers.


Harvesting

Fruiting of greenhouse-grown peppers continues until the onset of stable cold weather. Harvesting in heated structures is possible all year round. Early ripening varieties ripen in 90 days, late ripening - in 130 days. It is recommended to remove the fruits when they reach technical maturity - normal size, but the color is not typical of the variety. Carefully cut the vegetable with scissors together with the stalk. Unripe peppers can lie up to 2 months and reach biological ripeness.

The shelf life of such fruits is longer, they are convenient to transport. With physiological ripeness, the crop will not be stored for a long time, therefore it requires processing.

Bell peppers in a greenhouse produce high yields. When grown indoors, it is easier to create a favorable microclimate. It is important to pinch the plants on time, leave no more than 2-3 stems.


Watch the video: One Pepper You Should Never Grow in Your Home Garden


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