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The earliest tomato varieties in our area ripen in early August. To speed up their ripening, remove stepsons, pinch the tops of fruiting shoots, cut off late flower brushes, from which the fruits will not have time to form anyway. Provide plants with reliable sunlight.
Growers usually don't wait for the tomatoes will turn completely red, and they are harvested in blanche ripeness along with the stalk. Carefully put them in boxes in two or three layers and ripen in a room with a temperature of + 20 ... + 25 ° С. At the same time, the fruits are of fairly high quality. The tomatoes remaining on the bushes continue to grow and ripen faster. Late varieties of tomatoes can be pulled out by the roots and the bushes can be hung in the attic, in a warm, ventilated room.
Tomatoes, like potatoes, are most at risk in August - late blight disease, so at this time there are sharp daily fluctuations in air temperature, accompanied by dew and fog. The development of late blight is facilitated by thickened plantings. The causative agent of the disease is transmitted with rain, irrigation water, wind. Plant residues of potatoes and tomatoes are the source of infection.
With late blight disease, the leaves turn dark brown, the stems brown, and dirty, vague, hard spots appear on the fruits. On the underside of the leaf, the spots are bordered with whitish and spiderweb bloom (fungus sporulation). Sometimes, concentric circles appear on the fruits with alternating dark brown and yellow stripes, rings with edging, depressed oily spots. Phytophthora can destroy the entire crop in 3-4 days. To prevent the appearance of late blight, take preventive measures even before the appearance of external signs of the disease. Start in early August.
Isolate planting tomatoes from potatoes. Dig deep into the soil. Before planting, treat the seeds with a 10% solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, followed by rinsing in water. Spray the plants with infusion of garlic during fruit setting every 15-18 days, up to 5 times. At the first signs of disease of single fruits, spray with a solution of sodium chloride. A thin film of salt protects against the penetration of the pathogen.
Spray with Bordeaux liquid (10 g per 10 L of water), a solution of copper sulfate (20 g per 10 L of water), polycarbacin (40 g), copper chloride (40 g) with the addition of one tablespoon of washing powder so that the solution better adheres to the leaves ... Repeat treatments every 10-12 days. Spray little by little and try in small drops to keep the solution from dripping off the leaves and stems.
If late blight has captured most of the plants, urgently remove all formed green fruits, heat them at a temperature of 40 ° C for four hours in an oven, or immerse the tomatoes in hot water with a temperature of no more than 60 ° C for two minutes. If the fruits are not warmed up, then even healthy-looking fruits can get sick in 3-4 days. After processing, the leaves may fall off, which also accelerates the ripening of the fruit.
To prevent late blight disease from recurring, you cannot plant tomatoes in one area more often than after 3-4 years.
Tamara Barkhatova, gardener
Now let's look at what can not be done when the fruits of tomatoes turn red.
Summer in our country is rather short - only three calendar months. In addition, the weather on hot days does not spoil us too much. That is why in the month of August a lot of completely green fruits remain on the tomato bushes. And it's a pity when this wealth begins to die from phytophthora. There are several effective ways to speed up the ripening of tomatoes. This is what will be discussed today.
Greenhouse and open ground
Cold dew begins to fall already at the beginning of August, and therefore it is time to start taking decisive measures:
• Place arcs over tomato beds and cover them with covering materials every evening. In this case, the tomato will remain dry and protected from late blight contamination.
Here are the main methods for accelerating fruit ripening on bushes:
1. Experienced gardeners recommend spraying the bushes with iodine. To do this, dissolve 30 drops in 10 liters of water. In this case, watering and dressing must be abandoned.
2. Under the undersized varieties of tomatoes, it is necessary to put props so that all green fruits can receive the sun's rays.
3. All brown fruits must be removed and taken to the house, where they will ripen.
4. It is necessary to remove all the lower leaves on the bushes, up to the brushes with ripening fruits.
5. Undersized and medium-sized varieties must be freed from all flowering brushes. After such a procedure, the plant will begin to expend energy exclusively on filling and ripening the fruits.
6. Experts recommend using ordinary vodka to accelerate the ripening of tomatoes. It does not in any way affect the taste or the vitamin content in tomatoes, but the ripening period is significantly accelerated. The process is quite simple: use a syringe to inject 0.5 ml of alcohol into the green tomato (in the spot near the tomato's attachment to the branch). After a week and a half, all processed tomatoes acquire a brown color and can be removed.
7. You can use the following method. Put a plastic bag over the bunches of green tomatoes, where the fully ripe fruit already lies. It will release ethylene gas, which will accelerate the ripening of the rest of the tomatoes. The packages are kept for no longer than three days. The green fruits turn brown in about three days.
Towards the end of the month, when the fruits are already full, it is recommended to limit the flow of moisture and nutrients from the roots to the tomatoes. This can be done in several ways:
1. Cut a through hole in the stem (7 ... 10 centimeters) and fix it so that the stem does not close. To do this, simply insert a wooden stick into the cut.
2. Tear off some of the roots. To do this, slightly pull the plant upward several times, while twisting it clockwise.
3. Wrap thin copper wire around the stem of the plant at a height of 3 centimeters from the ground.
All of these methods can be perfectly used to accelerate the ripening of fruits in closed greenhouses.
It is worth considering that:
• in an unheated greenhouse on the bushes there should be 6 ... 7 brushes
• in heated rooms - 10 ... 12 brushes.
All flowering brushes and stepchildren must be removed. It is recommended to remove most of the foliage as well.
Ripping a tomato at home
All the fruits that have taken on a brown color are harvested in the morning. They should be dry, but have not yet had time to warm up in the sun. Tomatoes that are healthy without damage should be placed in the boxes. Store them in a dry and well-ventilated area. If you store tomatoes in the light, they will ripen much faster, but in a dark place they ripen more evenly.
To slow down ripening, it is necessary to sort the fruits according to the degree of ripeness. They are laid in several layers, sprinkling each with dry sawdust. The maximum storage temperature is not higher than +10.
If you need to speed up the ripening, then the boxes are exposed to heat (+ 20 ... + 25) and a few ripe tomatoes are added to them. The fruits begin to release ethylene, accelerating the reddening of the rest of the fruits.
There are some tricks that can be used to stimulate the ripening of green tomatoes. Let's look at basic and effective ways to help stimulate maturation.
Important! If the night temperature drops below 10 degrees Celsius, then it is imperative to remove the fruits from the bush along with the stalk and send them for ripening at home.
For intensive ripening, the fruits, of course, need the sun. At the end of the summer season, it is necessary eliminate extra leaves that cover the fruits from light. You also need to substitute supports under the lower brushes and carefully turn these branches with fruits towards the sun and tie it to a support or fix it with stakes, spacers. Also, thanks to the manipulation, the vegetables on the lower shoots will not come into contact with the ground.
As you know, ripe fruits and vegetables can secrete a plant hormone (phytohormone) - ethylene, which promotes faster maturation of green counterparts. By the way, it is used for ripening crops on an industrial scale. But in your garden, this method can also be applied, but on a smaller scale.
Roughly speaking, if you put a green tomato next to a ripe, the latter will ripen much faster.
To stimulate maturation it is recommended to carefully immerse a twig with green fruits in a bag containing ripe tomatoes, carefully tie and fix the bag to a support... In this form, you need to leave them for about 3 days. After such a trick, the fruits will begin to ripen very intensively.
A little trick! In addition, you can use a ripe banana (or at least just a peel) instead of ripe tomatoes.
Recommended collect brown tomatoes from the bush and at home, let them ripen... This manipulation will help more green fruits ripen. If you leave brown tomatoes on a branch, then they will "pull the blanket" over themselves, that is, all the food will go to their full ripening to the detriment of green specimens.
To speed up the ripening of tomato fruits, it is recommended to produce foliar top dressing (spraying on the leaf) with iodine solution... It is believed that the pharmaceutical agent stimulates the ripening of the crop. To prepare the solution, mix 30 drops of the drug and 10 liters of lukewarm water (standard bucket).
In total, it is recommended to feed the plants with such folk fertilizer once or twice (with an interval of 7-10 days).
Important! It is recommended to make iodine feeding of tomatoes in the evening or in cloudy weather, so that the plant does not get burned due to the sun's rays.
By the end of the season, it is recommended to remove new flower stalks and buds., because they not only no longer represent any value (they still will not have time to grow to a full harvest), but also delay the ripening of green fruits, taking away the strength of the bush. In short and medium-sized plants, flower brushes should be removed. But in tall ones, in addition to this, it is recommended to cut off the top.
As already noted in the first paragraph, you need remove leaves (especially the lower ones), which cover the fruit from the sun's rays.
Note! To stimulate more intense and faster ripening, it is imperative to pinch the tomatoes (remove the stepchildren (useless shoots) from the leaf axils).
In the case when the fruits are poured, but reluctantly turn red, it is recommended reduce watering and stop applying fertilizers containing nitrogen.
This method can be referred to as alcoholic stimulation of tomato ripening. It should be carried out at the moment when the green fruits are poured to the size characteristic of a particular variety. During this period, it is necessary introduce in the region of the stalk 0.5 milliliters of 40% vodka... Thanks to the ethylene in the composition, tomato ripening occurs more intensively: after about two weeks they will ripen.
To do this, it is necessary to make a small longitudinal through-hole at the bottom of the stem (about 10 cm from the ground) incision with a sharp and disinfected knife. The length of the incision is 2-3 centimeters.
Then insert a small piece of wood into this cut (the optimal length is 2 cm, and the width is 0.5 cm). It turns out that the stem in this area is disconnected, but at the same time tissue rupture does not block the movement of nutrients, but significantly limits them. Due to the stress that has arisen, the plant begins to direct all its forces towards the intensive ripening of the fruits.
Just like the above method, stimulating the ripening of the tomato crop with this method seems a little barbaric. The essence of the method is as follows: at a height of three centimeters from the ground, you need to wrap the stem with a thin copper wire, while the wire should not cut too hard into the tissue of the stem. Due to this manipulation, less nutrients will be supplied to the plant's root system, but more tomatoes will be supplied to the fruits!
There is one more trick - you need gently pick up the base of the stem of the tomato bush and slightly pull it out of the ground... The stop signal of the event is a weak crunch of tearing weak roots, then you need to release the plant.
By pulling the tomato bush out of the soil, the torn roots stop transporting nutrients and moisture, which forces the plant to more intensively direct nutrition to the fruits.
The method of ripening on the bushes is ideal for the autumn period, when the cold has already arrived, and there are still many green fruits on the bushes in the greenhouse or open field. The scheme of the method is quite simple: you need to carefully pull out or dig up the tomato bushes together with the root
In this position ("upside down"), the fruits will receive more nutrients.
This photo well illustrates the ripening of tomatoes suspended on bushes at home, only they are too close to each other:
Note! At the end of the growing season (i.e., late summer - early autumn), a change in conditions is observed - the weather becomes more humid and cooler, that is, ideal for the development of a dangerous disease late blight. The disease can destroy your plants along with the harvest. To prevent this from happening, you need to pay attention prevention of late blight (spray with fungicides, cover the bushes in the open field at night with film), and, if necessary, treatment.
Any summer resident and gardener wants to get a good and large harvest of tasty and healthy vegetables. It is in your power to achieve maximum results, but for this you need to try.
If tomatoes are not pinned, they form many shoots with flower clusters and spend all their energy on their growth and development. As a result, tomatoes ripen very slowly. Therefore, tomatoes need to be pinned regularly, while they form extra shoots. Sometimes this also happens in August. In addition, to direct all the nutrients to the fruits and accelerate their ripening, at the end of summer, regularly remove excess leaves, especially those that are below the flower brushes. Prune in the morning when the leaves are particularly fragile. Do this with clean, sharp tools, leaving a smooth, even cut.
Reduce watering, water in moderation, and only when needed. At the same time, do not take long breaks after which you have to pour a lot of water (tomatoes may crack).
Refuse fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers. Use potash instead in August.
After watering, seal in the aisles for 0.5 tsp. potassium sulfate under the bush.
In addition, in the first half of the month, tear off the top of each stem.
Do not bring the fruits to full maturity on the branches: they ripen perfectly at home.
Spray the bushes with iodine solution every 3-5 days in the evening (40 drops per bucket of water).
8 golden rules that will not only speed up the ripening of tomatoes, but also increase the yield.
1. Pluck off the first ripe fruit. Do not wait until a few ripen, pick the first red tomato on the bush - after that all the rest will start to blush!
2. Remove all leaves down to the first twig. It is important to remove all the foliage on the stem of the tomato before the first tomatoes, so the bush will be better ventilated. In addition, it is imperative to do this in order to predict the development of phytophthora. Remember - the disease develops due to the leaves touching the soil.
3. Pinch the top after tying the branches with fruits. This manipulation will allow tomatoes to absorb more nutrients, which stimulates their early ripening.
4. Limit watering in August. If the climate is mild, then it can be stopped. With minimal watering, tomatoes ripen delicious and sweet, no wateriness or sourness!
To improve the taste of tomatoes, you can spray with a soda solution in the proportion: 1 tsp. per liter of water. Repeat the procedure every 7 days.
5. Spraying with iodine. 3 drops per liter of water or 40 drops per bucket of water. Process the bush with the resulting solution, spraying the fruits and the lower part of the stem. So the tomatoes will blush faster and gain immunity from late blight.
6. Ash solution.A glass of ash on a bucket of water without insisting, mix well and immediately pour the bushes under the root. This will not only enhance the ripening of tomatoes, but also improve their taste - the fruits will become sweeter. Pour a liter of solution under each bush. Be sure to water the tomatoes first, otherwise the plants will get burned, especially if they did not receive moisture before.
Otherwise, if, on the contrary, try not to water, then some leaves and fruits should be sprayed with ash. You need to process tomatoes in the morning and in the evening with a decanted solution: half a glass of ash in a bucket of water.
7. Top dressing with potassium humate. This is not only a great way to fertilize tomatoes - fertilization with potassium humate significantly stimulates their ripening. Proportion: 10 g of powder per 200 liters of water. Pre-pour potassium humate with two liters of boiling water, mix thoroughly and leave to infuse for 2 hours. Drain the solution into barrels and water the bushes only at the root. Repeat the procedure every 10 days.
8. Cover the bush with apples or bananas, you can put them in a container with harvested unripe tomatoes. Apples and bananas contribute to the rapid ripening of unripe fruits due to special enzymes. Walnut foliage can also speed up ripening of plucked green tomatoes. It is enough to mix them together with the leaves in one drawer.
It is strictly forbidden:
Overuse watering. Tomatoes do not tolerate sudden changes in humidity. The soil should not be either overdried or watered generously after that. If you do not follow this rule, then the fruits will crack. Better to cover the soil with hay.
The approximate period for which tomatoes ripen after the start of flowering is 40-55 days... The exact period depends on the variety of the vegetable.
During the first month, green fruits increase in size, become dense. After that, they need about 20 more days to mature.
There are several reasons why tomatoes ripen more slowly. in the greenhouse, open ground and on the balcony:
To speed up the ripening process of tomatoes in the open field, adhere to the following rules:
If tomatoes grow in a greenhouse, these rules apply to them as well. However, if there is heating in the greenhouse, then it is recommended to leave no more than 12 brushes on the plant. If there is no heating, then no more than 7.
In a greenhouse, before the onset of cold weather, fruits ripen fully on medium clusters, and partially at the tops.
Experienced gardeners recommend removing stepchildren and leaving no more than 17 leaves on the plant.
1. Control and shape the plants so they don't develop in a chaotic manner. First of all, remove the side shoots growing in the leaf axils. This is especially important for tall varieties, since undersized early ripening varieties provide the main crop on lateral branches and have time to ripen before the appearance of phytophthora ..
2. Pinching the bush can also help speed up the ripening of tomatoes. It is best to pinch over the third brush of the central stem and over the second on the lateral shoots. Keep in mind that over those inflorescences on which fruits have already set, there should be about two or three leaves. The growth and development of fruits depends on these leaves. And in the second half of August, be sure to remove all flower brushes.
3. Promotes the rapid growth and ripening of the tomato using trellises, which are easy to build in the open field. Plants will absorb and use more heat from the sun if they are tied to a wire stretched along the rows. In addition, this creates conditions for good ventilation of the plants, which reduces their susceptibility to diseases. In the greenhouse, you can also arrange a trellis along a row of bushes. This is especially good for the cultivation of high varieties.
4. A good way to speed up the ripening process is to turn the tomato bunches towards the sun. Place supports under the plants, on which you lay out the fruits, unfolding the fruits towards the sun, this will significantly accelerate the ripening of the tomatoes.
5. Another good way to speed up the ripening of tomatoes is to limit the supply of nutrients and moisture to the plant itself. This can be done by forming a small hole in the stem at a height of 10-12 cm from the ground and inserting a small chip into it. You can also pull the roots up by pulling the plant up - this will have a similar effect. Another trick is to wrap the copper wire around the trunk and gently pull off the stem with it.
6. A plastic bag with holes for condensation drainage can be put on the brush of a plant on which there is at least one ripe fruit. This will protect tomatoes from late blight, while maintaining the required temperature level. And since ripe fruits emit ethylene gas, which stimulates fruit ripening, other tomatoes on this cluster will ripen much faster.